Plant & Soil Sciences eLibraryPRO
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Lessons - Alphabetical Lesson List
  • Advanced Backcross Breeding This lesson is a detailed explanation of the backcross breeding process. Variations based on whether backcrossing is performed with dominant, recessive, or multiple traits are discussed. Calculations associated with backcross breeding are explained.
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  • Aparición de resistencia a herbicidas, en una población de malezas El uso repetido del mismo herbicida, puede provocar poblaciones de malezas que consisten de biotipos susceptibles (S) que son controlados y biotipos resistentes (R), que escapan al control para produc...
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  • Aplicaciones prácticas de la fisiología de los herbicidas en las plantas Esta lección se focaliza en el impacto de las características de la planta y el herbicida, importantes para determinar el desempeño del herbicida. Se usarán imágenes visuales para ilustrar varios...
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  • Appearance of Herbicide Resistance in a Weed Population Through the repeated use of the same herbicide, weed populations can consist of susceptible (S)-biotypes that are controlled and herbicide resistant (R)-biotypes that are left behind to produce and re...
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  • Asteraceae This lesson contains information about the Asteraceae family.
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  • Auxin and Auxinic Herbicide Mechanism(s) of Action - Part 1 - Introduction The selective control of broadleaf weeds in cereal grain crops by auxinic herbicides has made this group one of the most widespread and important herbicide families in use. These herbicides were the f...
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  • Auxin and Auxinic Herbicide Mechanism(s) of Action - Part 2 - Advanced The selective control of broadleaf weeds in cereal grain crops by auxinic herbicides has made this group one of the most widespread and important herbicide families in use. These herbicides are thoug...
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  • Backcross Breeding 1 - Basic Gene Inheritance This lesson reviews the basics of gene inheritance. It compares plants that are homozygous, heterozygous, and hemizygous for an allele and how gene expression is affected by the dominance of an allele...
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  • Backcross Breeding 2 - The Backcrossing Process This lesson discusses the final stage of developing genetically engineered crops. The need for backcrossing, and the steps of this breeding method are described. Yield lag, yield drag, and gene stac...
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  • Basic Techniques of Plant Tissue Cultures A description of techniques used to successfully grow tissue cultures, including several videos of specific steps.
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  • Breeding for Grain Quality Traits: The challenges of measuring phenotypes and identifying genotypes. An introduction to methods and difficulties of plant breeding.  Comparisons are made between corn, proso millelt, wheat, and sorghum.
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  • Case of the Drought Resistant Genetically Engineered Corn Plant This scenario accompanies the online lesson, "Transpiration - Water Movement Through Plants", and is designed to allow you to apply the concepts learned in that lesson to a real-life problem.
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  • Clasificación de los herbicidas Esta lección se enfoca en entender el sistema de clasificación en el cual están organizados los herbicidas. Terminología como clasificación, jerarquía de clasificación, ejemplos de clasificaci...
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  • Corn Breeding: Lessons From the Past This is the first in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with forma...
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  • Corn Breeding: Introduction to Concepts in Quantitative Genetics This is the second in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with form...
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  • Corn Breeding: Types of Cultivars This is the third in a series of lessons specifically designed to instruct individuals without any formal training in genetics or statistics about the science of corn breeding. Individuals with formal...
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  • Corn Flowers and Hybrid Seeds An explanation of how hybrid corn is grown, and how the monoecious nature of corn is used to manipulate the cross-breeding.
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  • Corn Rootworm - Part 1: Description of Corn Rootworm and Other Early Season Corn Pests This lesson will discuss the corn rootworm complex, which consists of the northern, western, and southern corn rootworm, focusing on the northern and western species. The information in this lesson ...
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  • Corn Rootworm - Part 2: Corn Rootworm Management This lesson will discuss economic thresholds and management options related to the corn rootworm complex consisting of the northern, western, and southern corn rootworm, with emphasis on the norther...
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  • Defoliation - Grazing Response A scenario to accompany 'Perennial Plant Response to Defoliation"  and provide an opportunity to apply the concepts learned in that lesson to a real-life problem
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  • Deliberate Mechanical Defoliation of Perennials A scenario to accompany 'Perennial Plant Response to Defoliation"  and provide an opportunity to apply the concepts learned in that lesson to a real-life problem
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  • Descripción de la Ingeniería Genética
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  • DNA and DNA Extraction This lesson discusses what DNA is and how it relates to genes and chromosomes. How and why DNA is extracted in the genetic engineering process is also covered.
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  • Electrophoresis: How scientists observe fragments of DNA Describes gel electrophoresis and how the method is used in molecular genetic analysis.
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  • Embryogenesis
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  • Erosion Soil erosion is a global problem. Each year, erosion costs billions of dollars in loss of land productivity, damage from soil sediment deposition and subsequent restoration costs, and harm to plant, a...
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  • Erosion Control Measures This lesson will discuss erosion control practices in the agricultural and construction environments. The impact of erosion management practices will be demonstrated with exercises using a USLE calcul...
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  • European Corn Borer and Bacillus thuringiensis This lesson contains information about the history, life cycle, and host plants of the European corn borer and information relating to the history and biology of Bacillus thuringiensis.
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  • Flowering Principles What is a "flower" and what are its structures? How do the male and female parts operate to produce seed? Monoecious versus dioecious; perfect versus imperfect.
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  • Foliar Absorption and Phloem Translocation Herbicides must be absorbed into plants in order to be effective. Herbicide absorption can occur through leaves, roots or both. The process by which herbicides kill weeds, called mode of actio...
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  • Gene Cloning This lesson covers the utilization of gene cloning to isolate and copy a specific gene of interest. The transformation of bacteria with plasmids containing antibiotic resistance genes to make gene l...
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  • Gene Cloning Part 1: The Mechanics of Recombinant DNA This lesson describes how DNA molecules can be recombined to make recombinant DNA and how special DNA molecules called plasmids allow scientists to clone genes.
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  • Gene Cloning Part 2: Making and Screening Gene Libraries This lesson teaches how a specific gene can be identified from among the thousands of genes that can be cloned from an organism.
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  • Gene Design 1 - Gene Regions This lesson describes the three gene regions and their roles in gene expression. It also discusses how the regions of a gene can be altered to obtain desired trait expression.
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  • Gene Design 2 - Gene Constructs This lesson builds upon the gene region lesson discussing the gene construct of currently used hybrids and explaining how these combinations result in a particular gene expression.
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  • Gene Expression Part 1: Reading Genes to Make Proteins This lesson describes the steps involved in a cell as DNA sequence information is read to make RNA and RNA is read to make proteins.
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  • Gene Expression Part 2: Expression of Herbicide Resistant ALS Genes in Plants This lesson describes how changes in the DNA sequence of a gene can alter the synthesis of a protein and thus influence traits such as herbicide resistance.
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  • Greening Up the Greens - Transpiration Application Scenario A scenario to accompany the online lesson, 'Transpiration - Water Movement Through Plants'.
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  • Herbicidas que Actúan A través de la Fotosíntesis En esta lección se examinarán los herbicidas que afectan los procesos celulares relacionados con la utilización de la luz, causando así daños a las plantas. Existen cuatro mecanismos básicos que...
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  • Herbicide Classification This lesson focuses on understanding the classification system into which herbicides are organized. Terms of classification, classification hierachy, examples of classification and a brief overview ...
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  • Herbicide Discovery and Screening Historically, herbicides have been discovered by randomly screening collections of chemicals for activity on target weeds. While totally empirical, this approach has been surprisingly successful and ...
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  • Herbicide Resistance: Mechanisms, Inheritance, and Molecular Genetics Explanation of the biochemical mechanisms and genetics of herbicide-resistance in weeds and the management and spread of herbicide-resistant weeds in relationship to the biochemical mechanisms and inh...
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  • Herbicides That Act Through Photosynthesis This lesson will examine herbicides that adversely affect light-related processes, thereby causing damage to plants. There are four basic mechanisms that will be studied in this class of agents: her...
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  • High School Quiz, Agronomy A brief high school level quiz on Agronomy.
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  • High School Quiz, Horticulture A brief high school level quiz of horticulture.
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  • High School Tree Identification Quiz A brief high school level tree identification quiz.
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  • Inhibidores de la Síntesis de Aminoácidos Aromáticos En esta lección se detallarán los procesos bioquímicos que son afectados por los herbicidas que inhiben la síntesis de aminoácidos en las plantas. Se describirá también la importancia de los am...
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  • Inhibitors of Aromatic Amino Acid Biosynthesis This lesson will detail the biochemical mechanisms that are affected by herbicides which inhibit a plant’s ability to synthesize amino acids. The significance of amino acids and proteins will also b...
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  • Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthesis and Elongation Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid elongation are two parts of a critically important pathway in plants. The endproducts are essential components of cell membranes, waxes, and suberin. Two chemical f...
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  • Just the facts Description of the fundamental concepts of trait inheritance in sexually reproducing species.
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  • Kid Quiz, Agronomy A brief elementary school level quiz on agronomy.
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  • Kid Quiz, Horticulture A brief elementary school level quiz on horticulture.
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  • Kids Tree Identification Quiz A brief elementary school level tree identification quiz.
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  • La Interacción de la Luz con las Biomoléculas En esta lección se describe la naturaleza de la luz, la energía de los fotones y como dicha energía puede ser transferida a las biomoléculas. Se describen también tanto los procesos benéficos c...
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  • La Transpiración - Movimiento del Agua a Través de las Plantas La transpiración es la pérdida de agua en forma de vapor por las plantas. El agua es absorbida del suelo por las raíces y transportada en forma líquida por el xilema hacia las hojas. En las hojas,...
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  • Linkage - Part 1 Learn about the inheritance of traits that are controlled by independent genes, linked genes and pleiotropic genes. Examine the key events in meiosis, calculate basic map distances.  
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  • Linkage - Part 2 Learn to make predictions about inheritance using map unit distances and genetic markers, assemble maps from multiple-point linkage data, define the relationship between linkage maps, linkage groups a...
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  • Los Pigmentos Vegetales y la Fotosíntesis En esta lección se examinarán las dos principales clases de pigmentos fotosintéticos: las clorofilas y los carotenoides. Se analizarán sus estructuras bioquímicas y su biosíntesis, y se explica...
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  • Manure Phosphorus and Surface Water Protection I: Basic Concepts of Soil and Water P This lesson focuses on the process of eutrophication; the relationship between land application of manure and soil phosphorus (P) dynamics on P delivery to surface waters; and on the P dynamics in ...
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  • Manure Phosphorus and Surface Water Protection II: Field and Management Factors This lesson describes how source factors, including soil characteristics and management practices, affect phosphorus (P) delivery to surface waters; and also discusses how crop producers can control...
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  • Manure Phosphorus and Surface Water Protection III: Transport Factors This lesson addresses transport factors that may contribute to phosphorus (P) delivery to surface waters.  Erosion, runoff, subsurface flow, drainage, and distance to surface water are the main fact...
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  • Manure Phosphorus and Surface Water Protection IV: Assessment of the Risk of Agricultural P Delivery Addresses the assessment of potential for P delivery to surface waters resulting from the interaction of the source and transport factors addressed in Lessons II and III.  The basic concepts and appl...
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  • Marker-Assisted Selection A method of selecting desirable individuals in a breeding scheme based on DNA molecular marker patterns instead of, or in addition to, their trait values.A tool that can help plant breeders select mor...
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  • Mecanismo(s) de Acción de las Auxinas y los Herbicidas Auxínicos - Parte 1- Introducción Descripción: El control selectivo de malezas de hoja ancha en cultivos de cereales utilizando herbicidas auxínicos ha hecho de éstos una de las familias de herbicidas actualmente en uso más amp...
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  • Mecanismo(s) de Acción de los Herbicidas Auxínicos - Parte 2 - Nivel Avanzado Descripción: El control selectivo de malezas de hoja ancha en cultivos de cereales por los herbicidas auxínicos ha hecho de éstos una de las familias de herbicidas actualmente en uso mas ampliam...
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  • Metabolism of Herbicides or Xenobiotics in Plants This lesson will take an indepth view of how plants handle foreign chemicals (xenobiotics) such as herbicides. It will discuss the three main phases that plants use to handle toxic chemicals, which en...
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  • Mitosis and Meiosis and the Cell Cycle Understanding multicellular organisms requires an understanding of the lifecycle of the cells that make up the organism.
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  • Module 1: Basic Biotechnology An introduction to traditional cross-breeding and genetic engineering of plants, and to biotechnology.  
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  • Module 2: Biotechnology and the Consumer This lesson discusses the risks and benefits of biotechnology as well as the common consumer concerns with biotechnology.
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  • Module 3: Biotechnology Practice Applications Examines functional foods, allergens, genetic engineering, and food safety.
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  • Module 4: Nutrient Composition Biotechnology techniques used to make nutritional changes in plants. Examine how protein, fatty acid, carbohydrate, micronutirents, and phytonutrients contents in food have been altered.
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  • Module 5: Allergenicity This lesson discusses some of the issues that consumers experience following exposure to certain foods. This lesson will define and discuss food allergies, properties of food allergens, as well as the...
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  • Native Plant Breeding: Bringing the Beauty of Nature Home Looks at how native plant breeders create plants with new combinations of desired traits; the relationship between plants, flowers and seeds; male and female structures flowers; flower types based on ...
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  • Overview of Plant Genetic Engineering A general description of the overall process of genetic engineering. A basic explanation of the five steps for genetically engineering a crop is provided.
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  • Perennial Plant Response to Defoliation - An Overview Compares the growth of defoliated and non-defoliated perennial plants, with an emphasis on the link between plant structure, growth, and response to defoliation.
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  • Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis This lesson will examine the two major classes of phototsynthetic pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoids, their biochemical structures and their biosynthesis. The organization of these pigments into ...
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  • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) The polymerase chain reaction laboratory technique is used in a variety of applications to make copies of a specific DNA sequence. This lesson describes how a PCR reaction works, what it accomplishes...
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  • Practical Applications of Herbicide Physiology This lesson will focus on the impact of herbicide and plant characteristics important in determining herbicide performance. Visual images will be used to illustrate several principles including herbic...
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  • Producing Grain for Animal, Food, and Industrial Uses Links to three animations on the topic.
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  • Propagation and Procreation - More of a Good Thing -Creating unique individuals or perfect little clones -Genetics of it all--Peas in Darwin's pods
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  • Protein Detection in Plants This lesson will focus on molecular principles involved in the detection of biotechnology derived proteins in crops, using the lateral flow ELISA.
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  • Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Analysis 1 This is the first of a two-part series that describes the methods and uses of QTL analysis.
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  • Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Analysis 2 This is the second of a two-part series that describes the methods and uses of QTL analysis.
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  • Quantitative Traits Examines quantitative versus qualitative traits, looking at the use of phenotypes in determining quantitative control of heritability.  
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  • Real Time PCR - Some Basic Principles Real time PCR is a laboratory technique that can perform relatively accurate, reliable and reproducible measurements, to quantitatively determine the presence of specific gene sequences. Its value is...
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  • Root Absorption and Xylem Translocation Overview: Herbicides must be absorbed into plants in order to be effective. Plant roots and below ground shoots have few barriers to herbicide absorption; however, interactions with soil particles ...
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  • The Dihybrid Cross and Independent Assortment Examines the principle of segregation versus the principle of independent assortment and their effects on genetic data; and the concept of dominance.    
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  • The Inheritance of Variation An introduction to genetic inheritance, including the principles of segregation and dominance.
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  • The Interaction of Light with Biological Molecules This lesson describes the nature of light, the energy within photons and how this energy may be transferred to biological molecules. In addition, the beneficial and harmful methods for de-exciting mo...
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  • The New Bts
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  • Theories Behind Plant Tissue Culture When introducing a foreign gene into a target genome in plant tissue, you need to grow the transgenic cell to a complete plant. This is done by plant tissue culture, a biotechnique based on the concep...
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  • Transformation 1 - Plant Tissue Culture This lesson explains the technique of tissue culture as used in plant transformation. It discusses important issues, such as the use of selectable markers, genotype specificity, and tissue culture a...
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  • Transformation 2 - Transformation Methods This lesson explains the procedure of introducing a new gene into a plant cell (transformation). It discusses the main goals of the transformation process and describes the four main methods of tran...
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  • Transformation 3 - Transformation Events This lesson defines an 'event'. It explains the determining factors specific to an event, the qualities of a desirable event, and the identification and selection of desirable events.
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  • Transpiration - Water Movement through Plants This lesson and its animation follows the journey of water through a plant from its uptake by roots to its evaporation from the leaf surface. How this journey is altered by plant characteristics such...
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  • Utilization of Grain by Swine and Poultry Anyone involved in the grain industry needs a thorough understanding of swine and poultry nutrition to ensure grains closely match the dietary needs of these animals.
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